The Findhorn Ecovillage
芬虹生态村

New Frontiers for Sustainability
对可持续发展的探索

The ecovillage model is a conscious response to the extremely complex problem of how to transform our human settlements, whether they be villages, towns or cities, into full-featured sustainable communities, harmlessly integrated into the natural environment.
生态村模式是人类为解决所面临的极端复杂问题做出的积极探索,即将村庄、城镇和城市等人类居住地改造成为功能全面、可持续发展的社区,与大自然和谐共处。

The Findhorn Foundation is a founder member of the Global Ecovillage Network (GEN) and is an NGO associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information, working with intergovernmental agencies in educating and developing policy guidance for sustainable development and for delivery of village-scale sustainability programmes.
芬虹基金会是全球生态村网络(GEN)的发起人。作为与联合国公共信息部合作的非政府组织,芬虹基金会与跨政府机构合作从事可持续性发展政策的教育和推广,实施可持续性乡村计划。

The Findhorn Ecovillage Project received Best Practice designation from the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) in 1998.
芬虹基金会的生态村项目于1998年获得联合国人居中心颁发的最佳实践奖。

What are Ecovillages?
什么是生态村?

There is today an increasingly urgent need for positive models that demonstrate how we can live well and sustainably on the earth. Ecovillages are one such model, exploring sustainable lifestyle not only in environmental but also in social, economic and spiritual terms.
今天,我们日益急需建立在地球上可持续生存的良性模式。生态村就是这样一种模式,它探索能够同时满足自然环境、社会、经济和精神领域可持续性的生活方式。

Ecovillage principles can be applied equally to urban and to rural settings and to industrialised and non-industrialised countries. They address the need for participation in human-scale communities while nurturing and protecting the natural environment.
生态村的原理适用于城市和乡村,工业化国家和非工业化国家,致力于在培育、保护自然环境的同时满足人类参与社区生活的需要。

Ecovillages are communities with strong and vibrant social structures, united by common ecological, economic, social and spiritual values. Working with the simple principle of not taking more away from Earth than one gives back, ecovillages consciously work towards progressively reducing their ecological footprint. They do this by focusing on:
生态村通过共同的生态、经济、社会和精神价值理念凝聚在一起,拥有强大而充满活力的社会结构。基于对地球的索取不多于给予的朴素原则,生态村通过聚焦以下领域,不断减少生态足迹:

  • Local organic food production 本地有机食品的生产
  • Ecological building 生态建筑
  • Renewable energy systems 可再生能源系统
  • Reducing, re-using and recycling waste 减少、重复使用和循环利用废物
  • Cooperative social economies 合作性社会经济
  • Inclusive decision-making processes 兼容并蓄的决策程序
  • Cultural and spiritual diversity 文化与精神多样性
  • Integrated holistic healthcare 整体综合式医疗保健
  • Holistic and "whole person" education 综合性"全人"教育

Ecovillages are the newest and most potent kind of intentional community. They unite two profound truths: human life is at its best in small, supportive, healthy communities and the only sustainable path for humanity is in the recovery and refinement of traditional community life.

Dr Robert J Rosenthal, Professor of Philosophy, Hanover College

生态村是最新型、最有效的共识社区。生态村结合了两个深刻的真理:小型、互助、健康的社区是人类最好的生活方式;人类可持续发展的唯一道路就是恢复和完善传统的社区生活。

汉诺威学院哲学教授 Robert J Rosenthal博士

Universal Hall The Park Findhorn

Findhorn Foundation
芬虹基金会

The Findhorn Foundation has been known internationally since 1962 for its experiments with new models for holistic and sustainable living. Today it is at the heart of the largest intentional community in the UK and the centre of a rapidly developing ecovillage. Started in a caravan park in the northeast of Scotland, the Findhorn Foundation is a major center of adult education conducting programmes for approximately 3000 residential visitors a year form more than 50 countries. Cooperation and co-creation with nature has always been a major aspect of the Foundation's work and from its earliest days it became well-known for its beautiful gardens grown in adverse conditions on the sand dunes of the Findhorn peninsula. Since 1981,the Findhorn foundation has been involved in developing the ecovillage as a natural continuation of its work with nature. A number of other organisations within the community work in partnership with the Foundation to help make the ecovillage a reality.
自1962年以来,芬虹基金会一直以其对整体、可持续生活模式的探索而闻名国际社会。基金会位于英国最大的共识社区的心脏地带,是快速发展的生态村的中心。这里最初是苏格兰东北部的一个房车营地。如今芬虹基金会已成为成人教育培训中心,每年为来自50个国家的约3000人提供培训和住宿。与大自然合作并共同创造是基金会工作的重点,基金会早期的著名案例是在芬虹半岛恶劣的沙丘环境中所营造的美丽花园。作为与大自然合作的延续,自1981年至今,芬虹基金会一直从事发展生态社区的工作,并和社区内另外几家组织一起合作促成了生态村项目的实现。

The ecovillage at Findhorn is a tangible demonstration of the links between the social, economic and spiritual aspects of life and is a synthesis the very best of current thinking on sustainable human settlements. It is a constantly evolving model providing solutions to human and social needs while at the same time working in partnership with the environment to offer an enhanced quality of life for today and for the future. As well as be involved with the construction of new buildings, the wind turbines and other physical projects, the "human scale" of the experiment has made community participation and involvement an integral part of the ecovillage. A rich and diverse social fabric has emerged within the Findhorn Foundation community over the four decades of its existence, and experiments with pay and remuneration, festivals and celebrations, decision-making, governance and leadership, and other aspects of community life, all contribute to the continued evolution of the ecovillage.
芬虹生态村生动展示了人类生活中社会、经济、精神领域之间的联系并且综合了当代关于可持续性人类居住地的最佳思想。生态村是不断演化发展的模式,为人和社会的需求提供了解决方案,与大自然伙伴一起为今天和未来提供优质的生活。人类所做的各种尝试,以及参与建设新建筑、风力发电机等项目,使参与和分享成为生态社区不可分割的部分。40多年来,芬虹基金会的社区形成了丰富而多元化的社会结构,支付与报酬、节日和庆典、决策、管理和领导力等各类社区实验推动着生态村不断发展。

Ecological Footprint
生态足迹

A study undertaken by GEN-Europe in collaboration with the Sustainable Development Research Centre (SDRC) and the Stockholm Environment Institute has found that the Findhorn Ecovillage has recorded the lowest-ever ecological footprint for any community in the industrialised world. Ecological footprinting is a tool to measure the consumption of resources and the creation of waste, and is increasingly relevant to the world of today where energy efficiency and sustainability are critical in our efforts to combat climate change. The ecovillage’s footprint is a fraction over half the national average, meaning that the average resident in the community consumes just one half of the resources and generates one half of the waste of the average citizen in the UK. The community has an especially small footprint in terms of energy use (21 percent of the national average) and food (38 percent of the national average).
全球生态村网络(GEN)欧洲分部、可持续发展研究中心(SDRC)和斯德哥尔摩环境研究所合作完成的一项研究发现,芬虹生态村是工业化地区生态足迹最低的社区。生态足迹是衡量资源消耗和垃圾产出的标准。在人类与气候变化的对抗中,能源效率与可持续性至关重要,因此生态足迹日益成为我们生活中的重要指标。芬虹生态村的生态足迹仅略高于英国全国平均水平的一半,这意味着每名生态村居民平均消耗的资源和产生的垃圾是英国公民平均水平的二分之一。生态村在降低能源消耗(全国平均水平的21%)和食品消耗(全国平均水平的38%)的生态足迹方面做得尤其出色。

Cullerne Time Cullerne Pollytunnel

New Frontiers for Sustainability
对可持续发展的探索

Ecological Building
生态建筑

We have erected 61 ecological buildings to date and there are ongoing plans for the continued construction of an ecologically respectful built environment. The ecovillage at Findhorn has developed a unique construction system, environmentally sound and energy efficient. Using natural and non-toxic materials we have developed a ‘breathing wall’ structure, which allows the fabric of a building to beneficially interact with people to moderate humidity and air quality. We have also experimented with straw bale construction, the ‘Earthship’ system using recycled car tyres, and remain open to further new and innovative ecological solutions for the built environment.
至今我们已建起了61座生态建筑并且制定了尊重生态环境的持续建设方案。芬虹生态村已经形成了环保、节能的独特建筑体系。由天然、无毒材料构成的"会呼吸的墙体"结构有益于人体健康,并能有效调节空气湿度和质量。我们尝试使用稻草做建筑材料、用废弃汽车轮胎建设"地球船"(Earthship)系统,并将继续尝试新的生态建筑创意。

Renewable Energy Systems
可再生能源系统

Numerous homes and community buildings incorporate solar panels for hot water heating. A community company supplies panels to residential and commercial customers, both for new buildings and to retrofit existing buildings. Most new community buildings incorporate design features that invite passive solar radiation to reduce heating needs, such as south-facing windows and conservatories, and minimal wall openings on north walls. Sustainably harvested wood provides space heating for both new and older homes.
生态村内很多家庭和公共建筑都安装了太阳能热水系统。社区内一家公司为居民和企业在新建筑上或改造现有建筑时安装太阳能电池板。社区内大多数新建筑都设计引入"被动式太阳能",例如南向开窗、暖房以及尽量减少北墙开窗等,减少房间加热需求。新老建筑的取暖全部采用可持续采伐的木材。

Our four wind turbines have a total capacity of 750KW and much of the electricity is used on-site on our private grid. Overall, we are net exporters of renewably produced electricity. Some smaller scale systems with photo-voltaic panels and ground-source heat pumps have been successfully implemented as well. We are also exploring varous options for hybrid, electric and fuel-cell vehicles.
生态村的四个风力发电机容量是750千瓦,所产生电力主要用于本地电网。同时,我们还对外输送可再生电力资源。我们安装了光伏太阳能板、地源热泵等一些小型可再生能源系统。我们同时还在研究使用混合动力、电力和燃料电池等动力的交通工具。

Energy Efficiency
能源效率

The guidelines for new buildings in the ecovillage encourage very high levels of insulation, and double- or triple-glazed windows with heat loss inhibiting window coatings. Architects are encouraged to incorporate energy efficiency considerations into every building design. Energy efficient light bulbs are installed in many residences, businesses and community buildings. We are continuing to research ways to match the electricity output of our wind turbines with the electricity requirements of community homes and villages. Energy running costs for newer houses are much more efficient than for our remaining caravans. Using solar, wind and wood, combined with highly energy-efficient features in our new buildings, the ecovillage now receives more than 30% of its total non-transportation energy from renewable resources. This percentage will continue to increase as fossil fuel systems are replaced with renewable energy heating.
生态村的新建筑指南鼓励使用高标准的隔热材料和带保温涂层的双层或三层玻璃。我们鼓励建筑师将对能源效率的考虑纳入每座建筑的设计中。同时,我们一直在努力使风力发电机的发电量能完全满足生态村的需求。目前新建筑的能源消耗费用已远远低于仍在使用的房车。得益于太阳能、风能和木材的使用,以及大量高效节能的新建筑,生态村超过30%的非交通能耗来自可再生能源。这一比例将随着我们用可再生能源替代化石燃料而不断提高。

Living Machine Bagend2&3

Biological Waste Water Treatment
污水生物处理

To improve the cycle of water use for the settlement, we have developed a phased plan for responsible water management. We built our own waste water management facility, completed in 1995, called the Living Machine. A technology developed by Dr John Todd, it uses natural non-chemical biological systems to clean our sewage and creates a mini-ecosystem within a greenhouse environment, mimicking nature’s own water cleaning system.
为改善居住地的水循环利用,我们制定了分阶段的计划,对水资源进行负责任的管理。1995年,我们建成了自己的污水处理设施,命名为"生命机器"(Living Machine)。我们使用了John Todd博士研发的技术,这一技术模仿自然环境下的水清洁系统,在温室环境中创造了一个微型生态体系,使用无化合物的自然生物系统清理污水。

Recycling
循环利用

We have implemented an extensive recycling programme (metal, glass, paper, batteries, and a clothing bank) and have been instrumental in encouraging local authorities to expand the range of recycling services to the local area.
我们实施了多种循环利用项目(包括铁、玻璃、纸、电池和衣物"银行"),并且一直在帮助地方政府在本地推广循环使用的服务。

Sustainable Economics
可持续经济

Over the last 40 years the Findhorn Foundation Community has diversified into more than 60 different businesses and initiatives, providing a model of a vibrant, living local economy. Community businesses include:
经过40多年,芬虹基金会的社区已发展出了多元化的60多家企业和项目,形成了充满活力的本地经济体系。其中包括:

  • Findhorn Foundation, an international centre of holistic education conducting programmes for approximately 3000 residential guests each year
    芬虹基金会,每年为约3000名访客提供培训项目的国际综合教育中心
  • Phoenix Community Stores, promoting trade with ethical suppliers, initiating buying policies to support local products
    凤凰社区商场,致力于支持讲道德的供应商并支持购买本地产品
  • Ekopia Project, a Development Trust providing community based ethical investments
    Ekopia信托基金,从事基于社区的道义投资
  • Build One, building ecological houses
    Build One,生态建筑公司
  • Living Technologies Ltd, designing and building natural waste water treatment systems
    Living Technologies Ltd,设计和建设自然污水处理系统
  • Wind Park, electricity supply and wind turbines
    Wind Park,电力供应和风力发电
  • Findhorn Bay Housing Company, providing infrastructure management
    芬虹湾物业公司,从事基础设施管理
  • Findhorn College, offering further and higher education sustainability programmes
    芬虹学院,提供可持续发展的继续教育和高等教育
  • Duneland Limited, landholding company working with conservation, regeneration and ecological human settlement
    Duneland有限公司,从事自然保育和生态人居建设的地产商
  • Ecovillage Institute, designing and delivering village-scale sustainability programmes
    生态村研究院,设计和实施乡村可持续发展方案
  • Phoenix Bakery, organic bakers
    凤凰面包店,有机面包房
  • Moray Arts Centre, encouraging the study of the visual arts locally
    Moray艺术中心,支持本地视觉艺术研究
  • Findhorn Bay Holiday Park, offering holiday accommodation
    芬虹湾假日公园,提供假日住宿
  • Findhorn Pottery
    芬虹陶艺中心
  • Findhorn Flower Essences, producing floral remedies
    芬虹花精公司,生产花卉治疗产品
  • Findhorn Press Publishers
    芬虹出版社
  • Big Sky, graphic design and printing company, certified to high environmental standards
    Big Sky,获得高等级环境认证的图片设计和印刷公司
  • Moray Steiner School, providing Waldorf Education for children from age three to 16
    Moray Steiner 学校,为3至16岁儿童提供华德福教育(Waldorf Education)
  • Newbold House, retreat and workshop centre
    Newbold House,静修和工作坊中心
  • Ecologia Trust, promoting exchange programmes with Russia
    Ecologia信托基金,推动与俄罗斯的交流计划
  • Erraid Community, an associate community in the west of Scotland
    Erraid社区,位于苏格兰西部的姊妹社区
  • Trees for Life, award winning Scottish ecological restoration project
    生命之树,获奖生态恢复项目
  • Gaia Education, international sustainability education
    Gaia教育,从事国际可持续发展的教育
Cullerne Time Wind Turbines

Complementary Currency and LETS Scheme
辅助货币与本地交易和贸易系统

LETS is an acronym for Local Exchange Trading System which allows trade in goods and services without the use of money. Members of the Findhorn Foundation and community along with people in the local area participate in two local LETS schemes, Findhorn and Kinloss LETS and New Moray LETS. The latter is currently the largest LETS scheme in Scotland.
LETS是本地交易和贸易系统的英文缩写,其作用是在不使用货币的情况下实现商品和服务的交易。芬虹基金会和社区成员以及本地居民目前使用两个本地交易系统,即Findhorn and Kinloss LETS 和 New Moray LETS。New Moray LETS是目前苏格兰最大的本地交易和贸易系统。

In 2002 we floated the Eko currency scheme, a local system of exchange. Using Ekos encourages trading with and between community business, reduces banking and interest charges, and provides community projects with access to low interest capital. The current issue supports the expansion of our wind turbine project and affordable housing ventures. Ekos are valued at par with sterling i.e. 1 Eko=₤1, and notes are in denominations of one, five, ten and twenty. Residents and guests visiting the community can purchase the notes and use them at participating community organisations. On average about ₤17,500 worth of Ekos are in circulation at any one time.
我们于2002年启动了名为"Eko"的货币方案,在本地交易中使用。这是为了鼓励社区企业之间的交易,降低银行费用和利息成本,为社区项目提供低成本的资金支持。Eko目前支持着我们扩大风力发电项目以及经济适用房项目。Eko与英镑等值,币值包括1元、5元、10元和20元。居民和访客可以购买Eko用以参与社区生活。平均有相当于17500英镑的Eko随时在流通中。

Inclusive Decision-Making processes
兼容并蓄的决策程序

The New Findhorn Association (NFA) was created in 1999 to bring together the diverse organisations and people associated with the community within a 50 mile radius. The NFA has an elected voluntary council, but control of all aspects of the NFA’s affairs ultimately lies with the membership through democratic processes. The NFA employs two Listener Conveners whose job it is to take the pulse of the community, welcome new members, support organisations and businesses, empower grassroots members to take new initiatives and facilitate communication across the community.

"新芬虹协会"于1999年成立,囊括了半径50英里范围内相关的多元化组织和人群。协会有一个选举出的志愿者性质的委员会,各项事务的最终控制权归于经过民主程序选举的委员会成员。协会聘用了两名听众召集人,听众召集人的职责包括:把握社区的脉搏,迎接新成员,为各组织和企业提供支持,授权基层会员发起新项目,在社区内协调沟通。